I used three publicly available data sets to complement the following table and make a more informed analysis about this issue. A detailed description and link to each source can be found at the bottom of this page.
The following image is a visual representation of the size of each state in Mexico according to its population.
The following map shows the number of private and public universities available in each state. The states with a darker color have a larger number of universities.
This last graph compares the number of universities per state (in blue) with the number of universities per state with music degrees (the orange portion of each bar).
Here is some insight about the three different data sources and publications I used for this project.
INEGI (National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information) was founded in 1983 as a public and autonomous organization responsible for gathering and publishing information about Mexico in regards to its territory, resources, population, and economy.
The statistics for the second and third columns of my table (“Total Population” and “20-24 Population”) were published by INEGI, which is the Mexican organization in charge of the census and other statistical projects. The data available in their website is found in different sections depending on the topic it concerns. As a preliminary step, I checked their education, employment, and population categories. At the end, I only made use of the population data given that I found a more appropriate data set concerning music institutions through another organization. The education section published by INEGI is not specific about types of degrees in their section about higher education.
Anyone interested on working with data sets from INEGI can benefit from tools that are free and built into their website. One can look at general graphs that their researchers provide as an overview in each of their categories but can also and filter variables and download spreadsheets. Again, for the details that I was looking for, this is something I explore but did not meet my specific needs.
INEGI’s website: https://www.inegi.org.mx/
ANUIES (National Association of Universities and Higher Education Institutions) is a non-governmental institution founded in 1950 with the intention of being a communicator or point of unity between private and public universities that want to commit to the betterment of their teaching, research, and cultural services. At the moment, there are 203 higher education institutions (public and private) who are members of ANUIES.
Under ANUIES section on Information and Services, they offer data sets about higher education ordered per academic year starting with 2010-2011. Unfortunately, there is a lack of consistency with how the data is presented from one year to the next.
For this project, I downloaded the spreadsheet for the year 2019-2020 and was able to filter the information I needed. The last three columns of my table contain the data I extracted from the mentioned spreadsheet.
The original data set I downloaded contains some very detailed information about high schools, colleges, and universities. It was a little overwhelming at first to think about all the possibilities of analysis and different perspectives I could analyze depending what details I chose to include. At the same time there was the challenge of working fast within a large file that was often “crashing” my computer and closing while I was trying to pick and choose. For reference, I found that this type of file worked better on a Microsoft system rather than an IOS.
I filtered some things automatically through the spreadsheet possibilities and some things manually given the specificity I was looking for. Again, I had to make many decisions along the way: Should I extract information about women and men separately or together? Do I want only public or private universities? Should I also include How many specializations are there per music degrees? What about who gets to graduate, more women or men? After going back to my purpose and intentions, I decided that for the scope of this project it was not necessary for me to make exclude public or private universities in my selection, nor was it necessary to show the specific numbers for women and men. At the end, what I wanted to look at was at the total of universities per state and how many of those have music degree offerings, to start exploring the effects of that on the population.
To find the original data sets published in the ANUIES website, click here: http://www.anuies.mx/informacion-y-servicios/informacion-estadistica-de-educacion-superior/anuario-estadistico-de-educacion-superior
Given the complexity of the ANUIES spreadsheet, to get simpler information like how many universities are per state I consulted another source, described below.
SIC Mexico (System of Cultural Information).
This is a site that is part of the culture department in Mexico. Through this link: https://sic.cultura.gob.mx/lista.php?table=universidad&disciplina=&estado_id= one can have a quick look at the total number of universities in the country (3,105) and the total per state. This information is available in the fourth column of my table (“Universities per State”).
In the above site, one can also make more advance searches and download data, however, this are not available as spreadsheets but in the format of “CSV”, “XML”, and “JSON”. Another very useful feature here is the option to visualize the data in interactive maps: https://sic.cultura.gob.mx/mapa.php?table=universidad
Different Data Sets
As described above, I had to consult three different organizations and publications to come up with the information that would reveal more about music in higher education. The different ways of collecting and publishing the data by each of these organizations presents already a problem of consistency. What this means is that the percentages or numerical conclusions we draw from the combine data is approximate and not exact.
The biggest issue, to me, is that in my table I am showing how many students were enrolled in music degrees in the 2019-2020 academic year, and in the next column I show how many students graduated in 2020. The students that graduated or finished degrees in 2020 are from a cohort that presumably started in 2016 or earlier (depending the institution and specialization they attended). This means we cannot draw precise conclusions about the relationship between enrolled students and graduated students because we are no talking about the same cohorts.
The reason I could not include the corresponding enrollment and graduation numbers for the same cohort is for the problem outlined above; these data sets are published each academic year in different formats and is very time consuming to filter and use each data set differently. This is why I chose to only use ANUIES 2019-2020 publication.
In my table, the columns about population (drawn from INEGI) correspond to the 2020 census.
The ANUIES data about public and private universities with music degrees corresponds to their 2019-2020 publication.
The information from SIC Mexico does not explicitly say the year of publication. However, the document I downloaded does contain information that was updated on 2020.